What’s the test for?
This simple breath test can explore whether you have an intolerance to sugars such as lactose or fructose.
You may be referred for this test if you are experiencing symptoms including diarrhoea, nausea, bloating, gas and abdominal cramps.
About the procedure
You will provide an initial breath sample by blowing into a test tube through a straw or into a foil bag. This will give us your baseline reading.
Then, you will drink water containing a carbohydrate (fructose or lactose) which needs to be drunk over a minute or two.
Breath samples then need to be taken every 40 minutes for three hours and 20 minutes, along with recording any symptoms experienced using the symptom form provided.
What can be learned
People who are intolerant to lactose have very little or not enough of the enzyme lactase, which means that lactose cannot be broken down as normal in the small intestine. This means any lactose ingested passes through the large intestine whether it is broken down by bacteria, producing large amounts of gases such as hydrogen and methane.
Fructose intolerance can be cause by a lack of fructose carriers in the cells of the small intestinal wall. This causes an increased amount of fructose in the small intestine which cannot be absorbed. It then passes to the large intestine where it is broken down by bacteria, also producing gases such as hydrogen and methane.
In both cases, these gases are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the lungs. They are then exhaled via the lungs and can be collected in breath samples for analysis.
Following your test, your data will be analysed, and results written up into a report. The report will be sent to both you and your referring consultant/doctor, who will explain the results to you in a follow-up consultation.